What Did Italy Hope To Gain From The Peace Agreement

Italy was an official member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary. But it has also maintained good relations with France and Russia. The other countries understood this duality and did not expect Italy to participate in the war in 1914. Its contractual obligations did not require it to join Germany and Austria, and it saw very little to gain. Public opinion wanted peace, and the leaders of Rome realized how ill-prepared the nation, unlike the centres of power, was during the war. However, at the end of 1914, Prime Minister Antonio Salandra and Foreign Minister Sidney Sonnino decided that membership of the Allies would lead to significant territorial gains and help to appease serious internal differences by making the victorious army famous and satisfying the public`s feelings by liberating the Italian-speaking territories from Austrian rule. There were also new opportunities for patronage and political victories for politicians. They planned to make the plausible argument that these results would be triumph, the culmination of “Risorgimento” (i.e. the Italian association). In December 1914, Sonnino opened negotiations in Vienna and demanded territorial compensation in return for neutrality. These talks should hide the government`s true intentions from Italian public opinion and countries at war. In March 1915, Sonnino began serious negotiations with London and France. The Treaty of London was signed on 26 April 1915 and Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915.

Salandra boasted that the London Pact was “the greatest, if not the first, totally spontaneous foreign policy act by Italy since the Risorgimento.” [7] Among the many provisions of the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required Germany and its allies to take responsibility for the cause of all losses and damage during the war (the other members of the central powers signed treaties containing similar articles). This article, Section 231, later became known as the War Debt Clause. The treaty forced Germany to disarm, make major territorial concessions and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the powers of the Agreement. In 1921, the total cost of these repairs was estimated at 132 billion Marks ($31.4 billion at the time, or about $442 billion in 2017). At the time, economists, particularly John Maynard Keynes, predicted that the treaty was too harsh – a “Carthaginian peace” – and said that the number of reparations was excessive and counterproductive, views that have been the subject of debates in the debates of historians and economists in several countries since then. On the other hand, prominent allies, such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, criticized the treaty for treating Germany with too much leniency. The consequences of the First World War resolved many issues, including the precise position of national borders and the country to which some regions would join. Most of these issues have been dealt with by victorious allied powers in forums such as the Supreme Allied Council. Allies tended to refer to the League only particularly difficult questions.

This meant that at the beginning of the interwar period, the league had little role to play in resolving the insemination of war. Among the issues that the League examined in its early years were the issues contained in the Paris peace treaties. Negotiations on Italy`s demands, which were to last six days, were opened in Paris on 19 April 1919. Tensions immediately erupted when Orlando and Sonnino clung to strong opposition from other leaders and warned of a civil war in Italy – spurred by an increasingly radical movement of right-wing nationalists – if the country did not get what it had promised. On 23 April, Wilson issued a statement in which he argued that the Treaty of London should be repealed and reminded Italy that it should be content with receiving the territory of the

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